shop girls

Lauren W. Gilfillan
From the precede: "In order to find out at first hand the exact conditions under which girls work in the New York retail stores which serve a cheap class of trade, Miss Lauren Gilfillan, a recent graduate of Smith College, secured employment in two five-and-ten-cent stores. Here is the unembellished account of her experience. The Editor of THE FORUM believes that this is an important document because it faithfully portrays a situation which was all too common before the advent of the mystic symbol, NRA.
Discussion Aroused By Her Articles on "Prisoner's Of Poverty"
This article contains the responses of prominent New York clergyman Rev. Dr. Thomas Armitage, Rev. Dr. Howard Crosby and Rev. Dr. Edward McGlynn. to Campbell's "Prisoners of Poverty" series in The New York Tribune. The author seems to suggests that working women are partly to blame for their own exploitation.
"Doesn't Believe It; Humane Treatment of Servants; The Decalogue, The Lord's Prayer and Dr. Crosby"
Three letters to the editor of The Tribune, expressing varied responses to Helen Cambell's series "Prisoners of Poverty." One doubts the accuracy of Campbell's accounts, another questions the role of the Church in helping New York's poor.
"Commisoner McClave's Plan; He Suggests a Women's Protective Bureau Supported by the State - Housework"
This article reports on Police Commissioner John McClave's reaction to Campbell's "Prisoners of Poverty" series. Like Campbell, he believes that state government must intervene and pass laws to protect women from their employers.
Undertaking a Nobel Cause; An Admirable Example; Woman's Work; To The Lady of the House
A collection of article from local newspapers reprinted in The Tribune reacting to Campbell's "Prisoners of Poverty" series. "Undertaking a Nobel Cause" appeared in The Auburn Advertiser, "An Admirable Example" in The Buffalo Express, "Women's Work" in The Brooklyn Eagle and "To the Lady of the House" in The Herald of....
"Service and Criticism; An Offer Of Help; To the Editor of the Tribune"
This annonymous letter to the editor of the Tribune, praises the paper for revealing the conditions of New York's poor, but questions whether or not New-Yorkers will act to help those "who cannot help themselves."
"Incredible Cruelty, The Manufacturer's Side; An Angel in Disguise"
These articles are from local papers reacting to Campbell's "Prisoners of Poverty" series in the New York Tribune. "Incredible Cruelty," originally published in the New-York Evangelist, decries the working conditions endured by New York's poorest. On the other hand, "The Manufacturer's Side," published in Cloak, Suit and Ladies' wear Review, say that manufacturers, just like any other businessman, seek only to make a profit on their capital and are slaves themselves to the laws of supply and demand. This article also includes clippings from the Rochester Post-Express and the Boston Herald.
"The Domestic Service Question; A "Lady-Help"; To the the Editor of The Tribune"
Hope Ledtard
In this letter to the editor Mrs. Letard relates a story of a friend who hired a Norwegian widow to help her around the house. Within days of starting work, the window complained that the work was too hard. She suggests that well-to-do women should try to do without domestic help, claiming that "regular housework brings them health and vigor."
"Child-Workers in New York"
Helen Campbell
Campbell turns her attention to small children who work along side their mothers in New York's garment sweatshops.
"Two Hospital Beds"
Helen Campbell
Here Campbell illustrates the difficulties social reformers face through an interview with a New England man who spent many years of his life trying to improve the lot of women laborers but ended up disillusioned and poor himself.
"Among the Shop-Girls"
Helen Campbell
Campbell's look at the girls who work in garment retail, featuring interviews with both employers about why they prefer to employ women and with the girls themselves.
"The Widow Maloney's Boarders"
Helen Campbell
This week, Campbell turns her attention towards the living conditions of New York's poor and speaks with Mrs. Maloney, a resident of "The Big Flat," a notoriously crowded tenement house on Mulberry Street.
"Some Difficulties of an Employer Who Experimented"
Helen Campbell
Camphell transcribes her conversation with a German garment manufacturer who claims to care deeply about the health and welfare of his employees.
"One of the Fur-sewers"
Helen Campbell
Written in first person from the perspective of a young fur-sewer, Campbell illustrates how difficult it is for young women to find clean housing and respectable work.
"Under the Bridge and Beyond"
Helen Campbell
Here Campbell discusses the conditions in New York's "fourth ward," a notoriously poor nineteenth-century neighborhood, located by the East river in lower Manhattan
"Between The Rivers"
Helen Campbell
Campbell questions the assertion that even New York's poorest have enough money to meet their basic needs.
"The Evolution of a Jacket"
Helen Campbell
In the ninth chapter of her "Prisoners of Poverty" series, Campbell describes how jacket makers did "piece-work," meaning women had to work from home with their own equipment, making just one part of each jacket. This way manufacturers, in addition to paying low wages, saved on rent and equipment too.
"The True Story of Lotte Bauer"
Helen Campbell
Campbell tells the story of Lotte, a young Prussian immigrant who moves with her family to New York City. When her brother gets paralyzed on the job, Lotte tries to make ends meet with her sewing. She fails to make enough money and her family falls into destitution.
"Negative or Positive Gospel"
Helen Campbell
In this "Prisoners of Povert" column, Helen Campbell criticizes the Church for failing to acknowledge, let alone advocate for the city's poor. She assures the reader that New York's poor are very real and goes on to tell the story of a young mother struggling to support her sick husband and children by working in underwear manufacturing.
"More Methods of Prosperous Firms"
Helen Campbell
In the sixth installment of "Prisoners of Poverty," Campbell continues her Marxist critique of the garment manufacturing industry. She describes how competitionsbetween and within manufacturers contributes to low wages, long hours and poor conditions for the working poor, especially women.
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